Can Alternative Sequencing of Actions Break the Deadlock in Implementing the Agreement on the Path to Normalization between Kosovo and Serbia?


A mund të tejkalohet ngecja në zbatimin e Marrëveshjes drejt Normalizimit të Marrëdhënieve mes Kosovës dhe Serbisë përmes sekuencimit alternativ të veprimeve?

Kosovar Centre for Security Studies (KCSS)


Qendra Kosovare për Studime të Sigurisë


The dispute between Kosovo and Serbia remains a major challenge to the security, stability, and  prosperity of the entire Western Balkans region. In particular, the Banjska terrorist attack carried out by Serb militants against the Kosovo Police on September 24, 2023 (with the support from Serbia’s state apparatus, as per the investigation of Kosovar authorities) underscores the pressing need for a sustainable resolution to the ongoing dispute between Kosovo and Serbia. The most promising path toward such a resolution lies in the full implementation of the Agreement on the Path to Normalization of Relations between Kosovo and Serbia (APN), which was verbally agreed in Brussels in February 2023, because the Serbian President Vucic refused to sign it. 

Based on the available information, it is evident that the international community, including the European Union and the United States, anticipates Kosovo to take the necessary measures leading to the establishment of the Association/Community of Serb-majority Municipalities in Kosovo (ASM), in accordance with its Constitutional and legal framework. Simultaneously, Serbia is expected to take concrete actions toward informal recognition of Kosovo’s independence, often termed de facto recognition or functional recognition. Both objectives are fundamental elements of the Agreement on the Path to Normalization of Relations between Kosovo and Serbia (APN). 

This policy brief aims to present an alternative sequence of actions, with the aspiration of meeting the expectations of all parties involved in the reconciliation process.